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World Communion Sunday

Salem will observe World Communion Sunday on Oct. 3. This global celebration of the Lord's Supper reminds us that the unity of the Body of Christ extends across every boundary, and we are joined in Christ as sisters and brothers with all of humanity.

Bread from Across the Globe

During our 10 AM worship on Sunday Oct. 3, we will experience the tastes of other cultures during Communion. Salem members are preparing a variety of breads representing different cultures, from which to sample as the congregation comes forward that day to share Communion.

Help Bake Bread!

Any member is welcome to prepare a bread from around the world to share at Salem on World Communion Sunday. Include your children and/or grandkids in this fun activity!


Here’s how:


  • Find a bread recipe you’d like to make. Scroll below to see an image of each bread, the ingredients, and instructions.

  • Click on the "I'll make..." button to let the Salem office know the bread you'll make, or contact Salem at 215-348-9860 or If another Salem member has already chosen that bread, we’ll let you know which breads are still available.

  • Bring your bread to Salem on Sunday Oct. 6 by 9:30 AM.

Breads to make...keep scrolling down for images and recipes!
  • Baguette – France

  • Bauernbrot – Germany

  • Chapati Flat Bread – East Africa

  • Damper Bread – Australia

  • Gorditas – Mexico

  • Irish Soda Bread – Ireland

  • Japanese Milk Bread – Japan

  • Lavash Flat Bread – Middle East

  • Lefse – Norway

  • Marraquata – Chile

  • Naan Garlic-Cilantro Flatbread – India

  • Pandebono Bread – Columbia

  • Paratha Flatbread – Nepal

  • Psomi Bread – Greece

  • Russian Black Bread – Russia

  • Rustic Spanish Bread – Spain

  • Sabaayad Flatbread – Somalia

  • Sephardic Challah – Northern Mediterranean

  • Tandir Bread – Azerbaijan

  • Zopf Bread - Switzerland

Baguette – France

2 loaves, 12 servings per loaf (serving size: 1 slice)



  • 1 package dry yeast (about 2 1/4 teaspoons)

  • 1 1/4 cups warm water (100° to 110°)

  • 3 cups bread flour, divided (about 14 1/4 ounces)

  • 1 teaspoon salt

  • Cooking spray

  • 1 teaspoon cornmeal


How to Make It

Step 1

Dissolve yeast in warm water in a large bowl; let stand 5 minutes. Lightly spoon flour into dry measuring cups; level with a knife. Add 2 3/4 cups flour to yeast mixture; stir until a soft dough forms. Cover and let stand 15 minutes. Turn dough out onto a lightly floured surface; sprinkle evenly with salt. Knead until the salt is incorporated and the dough is smooth and elastic (about 6 minutes); add enough of remaining flour, 1 tablespoon at a time, to prevent dough from sticking to hands (dough will feel slightly sticky).


Step 2

Place dough in large bowl coated with cooking spray, turning to coat top. Cover and let rise in warm place (85°), 40 minutes or until doubled in size. (Gently press two fingers into dough. If an indentation remains, the dough has risen enough.) Punch dough down; cover and let rest 5 minutes. Divide in half. Working with 1 portion at a time (cover remaining dough to prevent drying), roll each portion on a floured surface into 12-inch rope, slightly tapered at ends. Place ropes on large baking sheet sprinkled with cornmeal. Lightly coat dough with cooking spray, and cover; let rise 20 minutes or until doubled in size.


Step 3

Preheat oven to 450°.


Step 4

Uncover the dough. Cut 3 (1/4-inch-deep) diagonal slits across top of each loaf. Bake at 450° for 20 minutes or until browned on bottom and sounds hollow when tapped.

Bauernbrot – Germany

1 large loaf



Dough Starter

  • Bread flour -- 3/4 cup

  • Rye flour -- 3/4 cup

  • Honey or malt syrup -- 3 tablespoons

  • Lukewarm water -- 1 1/2 cups

  • Instant yeast -- 1/2 teaspoon

Flour mixture

  • Bread flour -- 2 1/2 cups

  • Caraway seeds -- 2 tablespoons

  • Salt -- 1 1/2 teaspoons

  • Instant yeast -- 1/2 teaspoon

  • Oil -- 1 tablespoon

  • Cornmeal -- for the baking tray


How to make it

  1. Add the ingredients for the starter to a large bowl and mix together until smooth. Set aside for 10 minutes for the yeast to activate.

  2. While the starter is resting, mix together the remaining ingredients except for the oil and cornmeal. Pour the flour mixture over the starter. Do not stir. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap or a clean towel and set aside for at least two hours and up to five hours. The starter will bubble up through the flour mixture. This long rest will give your loaf a big boost of added flavor.

  3. Add the oil to the flour mixture and use a wooden spoon to stir the flour mixture into the starter. As the mixture comes together, remove the dough to a lightly floured work surface and knead for about 10 minutes, or until smooth and elastic. The dough might be a little sticky. Knead in just enough extra flour to keep the dough from sticking to your hands.

  4. Set the dough aside to rest for about 10 minutes, then knead for another 5 to 10 minutes.

  5. Set the dough in a large, lightly oiled bowl and lightly oil the top of the dough. Cover with plastic wrap or a clean towel and set in a draft-free area of the kitchen to rise until doubled in size, about 1 1/2 to 2 hours. Remove the dough to a lightly floured work surface. Punch down the dough and lightly knead it 3 or 4 times. Form into a ball, return to the bowl, cover and let rise for another 45 minutes or so.

  6. Preheat oven to 450°F and set the shelf at the lowest level. Put a small metal pan in the oven (you will use this later). Lightly press down on the dough and form it into a ball. Sprinkle the cornmeal onto a baking sheet and set the dough onto the baking sheet, with any seams on the bottom. Lightly oil the top of the dough and cover it with plastic wrap. Set aside to rise for another hour.

  7. Use a sharp knife or razor blade to slash the top of the dough in 3 parallel lines, each about 1/4-inch deep. Then slash with another set of 3 lines perpendicular to the first set. Use a spray bottle to mist the dough with water.

  8. Set the baking sheet in the oven and pour about 1 cup of water into the small pan to create steam. Shut the door immediately and bake for 15 minutes. Reduce heat to 400°F and bake for another 35 to 45 minutes. (An insta-read thermometer inserted into the middle of the loaf should register 190°F.)

  9. Set the loaf on a cooling rack and let cool completely.

Chapati Flat Bread – East Africa



How to Make It

  1. All ingredients should be allowed to come to room temperature if they have been in the refrigerator.

  2. Mix flour and salt in a bowl.

  3. Slowly mix in enough water to make a thick dough.

  4. Mix in one spoonful oil.

  5. Knead dough on a cool surface for a few minutes, adding a few spoonfuls of dry flour.

  6. Return dough to the bowl, cover with a clean cloth, and let it rest for thirty minutes.

  7. Lightly grease (with cooking oil) and pre-heat a skillet or griddle.

  8. Divide the dough into orange-sized balls. Flatten them into six-inch circles. Fry them in the skillet or griddle, turning once, until each side is golden brown and spotted.

  9. Place in warm oven as they are done and serve with butter and any curry, stew or soup dish.

Damper Bread – Australia



2 3/4 cups all purpose flour
4 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon salt
5 1/2 tablespoons unsalted butter, chilled
3/4 cup water
Golden syrup for serving


How to Make It

In a large bowl, combine the flour, baking powder, and salt. Cut the chilled butter into cubes and mix into the flour using a dough blender, forks, or your fingers. Once the mixture has a coarse texture with no pieces larger than a pea, stir in the water to bring the dough together. If too crumbly, add a little more water. If too sticky, add a little more flour. Knead just until smooth, being careful to not overwork.


Preheat oven to 390 degrees F. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper or lightly grease.


On a lightly floured surface, form the dough into a circle about 7 inches (18 cm) wide. Transfer to prepared baking sheet.


Dust a sharp knife with flour with flour and cut 8 wedges about 1/4-1/2 inches thick into the top of the dough. Dust the top of the damper with flour.


Bake in preheated oven until hollow when tapped and lightly golden, 30-40 minutes. Allow to cool on a wire rack for about 5 minutes before serving. Best the day it is made warm or at room temperature with golden syrup.

Gorditas – Mexico

Makes 10 gorditas



  • 2 cups masa harina, preferably Bob’s Red Mill

  • 1 1/4 cups water

  • 1/4 cup vegetable oil, plus more for frying


How to Make It

Step 1    

In a large bowl, mix the masa harina with the water and the 1/4 cup of oil. Transfer the dough to a sheet of plastic wrap and roll into a 10-inch log; cut into 10 pieces. Using a 3-inch round biscuit cutter, mold the pieces into flat disks a scant 1/2 inch thick.

Step 2    

Heat a large griddle or comal (a round, flat griddle). Add the gorditas and cook over high heat, turning once, until lightly browned in spots, about 2 minutes per side. Using the back of a spoon, lightly press an indentation in the center of each gordita.

Step 3    

In a large skillet, heat 1/4 inch of oil until shimmering. Add the gorditas and fry over high heat until golden and crispy, about 2 minutes per side; drain on paper towels. (Top the indentations with chicken, salsa, sour cream and cheese and serve hot.)

Make Ahead

The uncooked gorditas can be refrigerated in an airtight container, between sheets of wax paper, overnight.

Irish Soda Bread – Ireland




  • 2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour

  • 2 1/4 cups whole wheat flour

  • 3/4 cup rolled oats

  • 1 tablespoon plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder

  • 2 teaspoons sugar

  • 2 teaspoons salt

  • 3/4 teaspoon baking soda

  • 1 3/4 cups buttermilk

  • 6 tablespoons unsalted butter, melted and cooled


How to Make It

Step 1    

Preheat the oven to 350°. In a medium bowl, whisk the all-purpose flour with the whole wheat flour, rolled oats, baking powder, sugar, salt and baking soda. Add the buttermilk and cooled butter and stir with a wooden spoon until the dough is well combined.

Step 2    

Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface and knead it 10 times. Shape the dough into a 9-inch round loaf and transfer to a baking sheet. Slash an X about 1/4 inch deep in the top of the bread. Bake for about 1 hour, or until the bread is golden and the bottom sounds hollow when lightly tapped. Transfer the soda bread to a wire rack and let cool completely.

Make Ahead

The bread can be made up to 1 day ahead.

Japanese Milk Bread – Japan




  • ⅓ cup/45 grams bread flour

  • ½ cup/120 milliliters whole milk



  • 2 ½ cups/325 grams bread flour

  • ¼ cup/60 grams sugar

  • 2 teaspoons/7 grams active dry yeast (1 packet)

  • 1 teaspoon/4 grams salt

  • 1 egg

  • ½ cup/120 milliliters warm whole milk, plus extra for brushing on the unbaked loaf

  • 4 tablespoons/60 grams unsalted butter, cut into pieces and softened at room temperature, plus extra for buttering bowls and pan


How to Make It

  1. Make the starter: In a small heavy pot, whisk flour, milk and 1/2 cup water (120 milliliters) together until smooth. Bring to a simmer over medium-low heat and cook, stirring often, until thickened but still pourable, about 10 minutes (it will thicken more as it cools). When it’s ready, the spoon will leave tracks on the bottom of the pot. Scrape into a measuring cup and lightly cover the surface with plastic wrap. Set aside to cool to room temperature. (You will have about 1 cup starter; see note below.)

  2. Make the dough: In the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a dough hook, combine the flour, sugar, yeast and salt and mix for a few seconds, just until evenly combined.

  3. Add egg, milk and 1/2 cup starter. Turn the mixer on low speed and knead 5 minutes.

  4. Add soft butter and knead another 10 to 12 minutes (it will take a few minutes for butter to be incorporated), until the dough is smooth and springy and just a bit tacky.

  5. Lightly butter the inside of a bowl. Use your hands to lift dough out of mixer bowl, shape into a ball and place in prepared bowl. Cover with a kitchen towel and let rise in a warm place until doubled in size, 40 to 60 minutes.

  6. Punch the dough down and use your hands to scoop it out onto a surface. Using a bench scraper or a large knife, cut dough in half. Lightly form each half into a ball, cover again and let rise 15 minutes.

  7. Heat the oven to 350 degrees. In the meantime, generously butter a 9-by-5-inch loaf pan.

  8. Using a rolling pin, gently roll out one dough ball into a thick oval. (By this time, the dough should be moist and no longer sticky. You probably will not need to flour the surface, but you may want to flour the pin.) First roll away from your body, then pull in, until the oval is about 12 inches long and 6 inches across.

  9. Fold the top 3 inches of the oval down, then fold the bottom 3 inches of the oval up, making a rough square. Starting from the right edge of the square, roll up the dough into a fat log, pick it up and smooth the top with your hands. Place the log in the buttered pan, seam side down and crosswise, nestling it near one end of the pan. Repeat with the other dough ball, placing it near the other end of the pan.

  10. Cover and let rest 30 to 40 minutes more, until the risen dough is peeking over the edge of the pan and the dough logs are meeting in the center. Brush the tops with milk and bake on the bottom shelf of the oven until golden brown and puffed, 35 to 40 minutes.

  11. Let cool in the pan 10 minutes, then remove to a wire rack and let cool at least 1 hour, to let the crust soften and keep the crumb lofty. (If cut too soon, the air bubbles trapped in the bread will deflate.)

Lavash Flat Bread – Middle East



  • 1 (.25-ounce) package active dry yeast

  • 1 1/2 cups warm water

  • 2 teaspoons sugar

  • 4 1/2 cups all-purpose flour

  • 1 1/2 teaspoons salt

  • 1 tablespoon toasted sesame seeds (optional)

  • 1 tablespoon toasted poppy seeds (optional)


How to Make It

  1. Coat a large bowl with oil. Set aside.

  2. In a measuring cup, combine yeast, water, and sugar. Mix until yeast is dissolved. Set aside.

  3. In a large mixing bowl, combine flour and salt. Add yeast-water-sugar mixture and form a dough. Knead dough for 10 to 15 minutes by hand or 5 to 8 minutes using a dough hook in a stand mixer.

  4. Once the dough is kneaded, place the ball of dough in the oiled bowl. Roll the dough around the bowl to coat it with oil. Cover and let rise for 1 to 1 1/2 hours, or until the dough doubles in size.

  1. Once the dough has doubled, punch it down to release air. Continue to knead for about 5 minutes.

  2. Divide dough into 8 separate balls of dough. Cover and allow to rise for 30 minutes.

  3. Heat oven to 400 F.

  4. Once the balls of dough have risen, roll them out into thin rectangles, about 12x10-inch for large lavash or 8x6-inch for small flatbreads. They should be as thin as pizza dough.

  5. Transfer to parchment-lined baking sheets. Puncture the entire surface of the rectangles with the tines of a fork. Brush dough with water and sprinkle with sesame seeds and poppy seeds if desired.

  6. Bake for 20 to 25 minutes or until golden brown. Remove from oven and eat while still warm or when cool.

Note: Don't wait too long to eat lavash after baking it. This bread dries out quickly and often becomes brittle and/or hard to chew. If you don't plan to eat it immediately, freeze it in a zip-top bag as soon as it cools to room temperature.

What Is Lavash Exactly?

Lavash is a combination of flour, water, and salt. The bread's thickness differs depending on how flat and thin you roll it out. For extra taste, you can sprinkle on either toasted sesame or poppy seeds before baking.

Traditionally, lavash is cooked against the hot walls of a clay oven.

Lefse – Norway

15 servings




10 Lbs. Russet Potatoes, peeled
1 Lb. Unsalted Sweetcream Butter (room temperature)
2 1/2 Cups All-Purpose Flour




Step 1

Bring a large stock pot full of water to a boil. Cut your peeled potatoes 2-3 pieces depending on size and cook until they are tender. You may need to do multiple batches if you are using a smaller pot.


Step 2

Rice the cooked potatoes into a large bowl with your potato ricer. Once you have riced all of the potatoes cover and let them cool overnight in your refrigerator.


Step 3

Remove your potatoes from the refrigerator and let them warm slightly. Move approximately half of the riced potatoes to a smaller bowl. Add the flour in 1/4 cup increments, along with 1/2 stick of butter in chunks and 1 Tsp. salt. Knead the mixture until everything is well mixed. Test the consistency of your dough, you are looking for a texture similar to light pie dough. It should form into a ball without sicking to your hands and hold its shape without cracking if you press the dough ball lightly with your thumb.

If the dough feels too sticky add a little more flour, if it is too dry or is cracking when pressed add another couple pats of butter. Taste the Lefse dough as you go, it should taste like potatoes not flour. The dough should be slightly salty and buttery, but be careful not to over-do-it on the salt.

Warm your griddle to 400°F/200°C. If you are using a traditional lefse griddle remember to place it on a surface that will not be damaged by the high level of ambient heat. The heat from your lefse griddle could cause your stone counter top to crack or your laminate counter tops to delaminate. It is recommended that you use something to cover your countertop to help dissipate the heat.


Step 4

Form the finished potato mixture into balls about the size of a golf ball. Flour a pastry board covered with a pastry cloth and rub the flour into the cloth. You want enough flour so that your lefse will not stick, but not so much that your lefse is completely covered in flour. Roll out your lefse on your pastry board until it is 1/8 inch thick. Using your lefse stick transfer the lefse to your griddle. Cook on the griddle until bubbles form and each side has browned. Place the lefse on a damp towel to cool slightly and then cover with a damp towel until ready to serve.

If you are storing the lefse, after it has cooled fold it in quarters and place 8-10 sheets into a 1 gallon freezer bag. Store in your freezer for up to 3 months. To thaw - remove from freezer, place on a plate covered with paper towels and allow to come to room temperature.

Marraquata – Chile

Makes 6 marraquetas


  • 3 1/2 cup all-purpose flour

  • 3 1/2 cups bread flour

  • 1 teaspoon brown sugar

  • 2 2/3 cup cold water

  • 1 1/2 teaspoon instant yeast

  • 2 1/2 teaspoons salt

  • vegetable oil spray


How to Make It

  1. Combine flour, salt, brown sugar and yeast in the bowl of the mixer or bread machine or mixer. Add water and mix until it forms a ball. Dump onto a floured counter and knead vigorously for 10 minutes. Place in a clean bowl, drizzle with vegetable oil and cover the bowl and let rise for 30 minutes. Knead gently into a ball and let rest 90 minutes or more in the bowl until doubled in size.

  2. Divide the dough into 6 equal portions and make balls with them. Sprinkle lightly with vegetable oil spray, put them in a large Ziploc bag and let stand 30 minutes.

  3. Prepare two baking sheets, cover with parchment paper, spray with vegetable oil and cover with semolina or cornmeal.

  4. To shape the Marraquetas: Make a ball and stretch very gently by hand, trying to make an oblong shape. With a wooden or metal rod (the handle of wooden spoon works, for example) make a cross. Then again sprayed with vegetable oil spray and place in prepared sheet, put them in the plastic bag and let them grow for 15 minutes. Put in refrigerator overnight.

  5. The day after take from the refrigerator must have grown between 50-75% of its original size, let it stand 1 hour at room temperature. Remove from the bag 15 minutes before placing them in the oven.

  6. Preheat oven to 475F or 245C with a pizza stone inside. Put an empty pie pan on the oven floor. Put 1 cup of hot water into the pie pan. Put the marraquetas in the oven over the stone, leaving the parchment paper. Sprinkle the loaves of bread and the oven walls with water slightly. Repeat 2 minutes later. And then one minute later. Reduce oven temperature to 450F o230C.

  7. Bake for 10 minutes. Rotate the pan. Continue baking 10 minutes or until well browned. Turn off the oven and leave in for 5-10 minutes, until they look dark and seem to not stand another minute in the oven.

  8. Remove and let stand on a rack for at least 30 minutes. Eat!

Naan Garlic-Cilantro Flatbread – India

Serving Size: 6



  • 1 teaspoon active dry yeast

  • 1/2 teaspoon sugar

  • 1/3 cup warm water, about 110 degrees Farenheit

  • 1 cup all-purpose flour

  • 1/2 teaspoon salt

  • 2 medium eggs, lightly beaten

  • 2 tablespoons plain yogurt

  • 1/4 cup ghee or vegetable oil

  • 1/4 cup fresh cilantro, finely chopped

  • 4 cloves garlic, finely minced



  1. In a glass measuring cup, combine the yeast and sugar. Add the water and stir well. Let rest until foamy, about 5 minutes.

  2. Sift the flour and salt together into a large bowl. Make a well in the center of the flour and pour in the yeast mixture, eggs, yogurt, and 1/4 cup ghee or oil. Mix together with your fingers until a smooth dough forms, working in a small amount of additional flour if needed. Knead for 3 minutes.

  3. Oil a small bowl with the remaining 1 teaspoon ghee or oil. Place the dough in the bowl, turning to coat; cover with plastic wrap and let rest in a warm place until doubled in size, about 1 hour.

  4. Place a baking stone in the bottom of the oven and preheat oven to 400ºF. Divide the dough into 6 pieces and gently roll into balls. Gently roll each ball into a 6-inch circle on a lightly floured surface.

  5. Brush each circle with ghee or vegetable oil (about 2 teaspoons total) and top evenly with 1/4 cup finely chopped fresh cilantro and 4 cloves of garlic, finely chopped. Gently press the cilantro and garlic into the dough so they adhere.

  6. Bake dough on the baking stone in batches until just golden brown and puffed, 8 to 10 minutes. You should be able to bake two naan at a time on an average size baking stone. Serve immediately.

Pandebono Bread – Columbia

Makes 12 to 15 small rolls




1 cup yellow masarepa (pre-cooked cornmeal)


1/2 cup tapioca (cassava or yuca) flour


2 teaspoons sugar


2 cups grated farmer's cheese, Monterey ​Jack, or mozzarella


2 eggs


Salt to taste


A few teaspoons of milk or buttermilk, optional

How to Make It

  1. Preheat oven to 400 F. Grease a cookie sheet.

  2. Mix the two flours and the sugar in a bowl.

  3. Stir in the grated cheese and the eggs. Mix well with a wooden spoon. Taste for salt, and add salt as needed.

  4. Knead dough until smooth. If the dough seems too dry, add a few teaspoons of milk or buttermilk. The dough should be soft and pliable. Let dough rest for about 10 minutes, covered with plastic wrap.

  5. Pull off sections of dough and roll into balls that are slightly larger than golf balls. To shape the dough into rings (rosquillas), first roll a piece of dough into a cylinder, then join the ends together to form a circle. The rolls do not have to be perfectly smooth - they will puff up during the last several minutes of baking.

  6. Place rolls on prepared cookie sheet and bake for about 20 minutes or until golden in color and puffed. Serve warm.

Paratha Flatbread – Nepal


  • 2 potatoes, peeled and cooked

  • 1 cup flour

  • 2 teaspoons sugar

  • 1 teaspoon anise seed



  1. Mash the potatoes with half a cup of hot water.

  2. Add the flour, sugar, anise seed and salt to taste and knead to a dough.

  3. Roll the dough out to 6 thin circles and fry them in hot oil or ghee, 1 1/2 minute per side.

Psomi Bread – Greece


  • 6 cups all-purpose flour

  • 1 envelope active dry yeast

  • 2 cups water

  • 2 teaspoons salt

  • 3 teaspoons sugar

  • 1 tablespoon melted warm butter or 1 tablespoon oil

  • 1 tablespoon fine semolina (durum flour; use masa harina or cornmeal in a pinch)



  1. Sift flour into a mixing bowl and place into a low oven to warm.

  2. Dissolve yeast in 1/2 cup warm water, then stir in remaining water, salt, and sugar.

  3. Remove flour from oven; take 2 cups of flour from the bowl and set aside.

  4. Make a well in the remaining flour and pour in the liquid; stir in a little of the flour until the liquid gets thick, then cover the bowl and leave in a warm place until the mixture is frothy, about 10 minutes.

  5. Stir the rest of the flour into the liquid, and add the butter/oil gradually, beating with a wooden spoon or mixing with your hands until smooth (about 10 minutes), or alternatively, use a dough hook/mixer for 5 minutes.

  6. Sprinkle a little flour onto a board, and turn the dough out; gradually mix in some of the flour you had set aside earlier.

  7. Only knead in enough to keep the dough from sticking; dough is ready when it is satiny, and the surface is slightly wrinkled; shape into a ball.

  8. Oil the dough, and place in bowl, making sure the top side is oiled completely; cover bowl with plastic and allow to rise in a warm place for 1-1 1/2 hours or until doubled in size.

  9. Punch down and make into 2 pieces; turn onto floured surface, and form each into a torpedo-shape.

  10. Grease baking sheet and sprinkle with semolina; place the dough well apart on the sheet and cut 4 diagonal slashes across the dough; cover with a cloth and allow to proof in a warm place until doubled again, about an hour.

  11. Preheat oven to 375 degrees.

  12. Place a dish of boiling water on the bottom of the oven; spray bread lightly with a mister and bake in preheated oven for approx 35-40 minutes; after first 15 minutes, mist again with water, then again 10 minutes later.

  13. Cool on a rack when done.

Russian Black Bread – Russia


  • 1 1/8 cups lukewarm water

  • 2 tablespoons apple cider vinegar

  • 1 cup pumpernickel or rye flour, plus more for dusting

  • 1 1/4 teaspoons salt

  • 2 tablespoons unsalted butter

  • 2 tablespoons dark corn syrup or molasses

  • 1 tablespoon brown sugar

  • 3 tablespoons black cocoa

  • 1 teaspoon espresso powder or instant coffee powder

  • 1/4 to 1 teaspoon fennel seeds, to taste

  • 1 3/4 teaspoons instant yeast

  • 2 1/2 cups unbleached bread flour, divided


  1. Place all of the ingredients in a large bowl, reserving 1 cup of the bread flour. Mix until a sticky dough begins to form.

  2. Mix in the remaining cup of flour and knead for 7 minutes, or until the dough becomes soft and elastic, but may still be somewhat sticky to the touch. Cover the bowl and let the dough rise until doubled, 45 minutes to 1 hour.

  3. After the first rise, shape the dough into an oblong loaf. Place in a greased 9" x 5" or 10" x 5" bread pan, cover with greased plastic, and let rise until almost doubled, about 60 to 90 minutes.

  4. While the dough is rising, preheat the oven to 375°F. When the dough has almost doubled, brush or spray the top with water, dust with pumpernickel or rye flour, and score (slash) the top.

  5. Bake the bread for about 35 minutes, until it sounds hollow when you thump the bottom, or the inside measures 205°F on a digital thermometer. Remove the loaf from the oven and cool it on a rack before slicing.

  6. Store bread well wrapped at room temperature for several days. Freeze for longer storage.

Rustic Spanish Bread – Spain


  • 1.25 lbs. (.57 kg.) unbleached white flour

  • .65 oz. (18 g.) dry active yeast

  • 12 oz. (355 ml.) water

  • 2 1/2 tsp. salt​

  • 1​ egg white



How to Make It

This Spanish rustic bread recipe yields 3 loaves, 12 oz each.

Note: Weather conditions such as humidity and temperature affect bread making. The quantities of flour and water required for making ​suitable dough may need to be adjusted.

  1. Weigh flour, mix in salt and set aside. Pour dry yeast into a warm ceramic cup. Heat the water in a pan until it is very warm, but not hot. Pour approximately 4 oz of water into the cup with yeast and stir with a fork until the yeast is completely dissolved.

  2. Pour yeast-water mixture and all but 1/2 cup water into a very large mixing bowl. Add flour to bowl gradually, continuously mixing with a wooden spoon until all flour is absorbed, adding the remaining water as needed. The dough should have a smooth texture and form a ball.

  3. Using a paper towel, coat the inside of a large bowl with olive oil or vegetable shortening. Cover the bowl with a wet dish towel and place in a warm spot in the kitchen. If your kitchen is drafty and cold, allow ​dough to rise in the covered bowl in a warm oven (approximately 150°F) with the door open. Let rise for 30 minutes.

  4. Cover cutting board with a generous amount of flour to prevent dough from sticking. Turn dough out onto a cutting board. Flour hands and knead with heals of hands. When dough has a consistent texture and forms a ball, divide into 3 pieces. Form dough into rounds or oblong shapes. Place on a cookie sheet or baking stone. Allow to rise in a warm place for 10-15 minutes. While dough is rising, preheat oven to 375°F (190°C).

  5. Cut slits in top of loaves just before baking. When ​oven is hot, place bread on center rack and bake for 10 minutes. Remove and brush with beaten egg white. Return to oven and bake for another 15-20 minutes. Bread should turn a light golden color.

  6. Remove from oven and allow to cool on a rack for 10-15 minutes. When cool enough to touch, slice with a bread knife and serve.

Sabaayad Flatbread – Somalia


  • 4 cups all-purpose flour

  • 2 Tbsp vegetable oil

  • 1 tsp baking Powder

  • 2 Tbsp sugar

  • 1 tsp salt

  • 2 cups hot milk

  • 1 1/4 cups oil for cooking


How to Make It

  1. Mix all the ingredients (except the milk) in a mixer bowl. On, low speed gradually pour in the hot milk and leave to mix for 5 minutes. it will be a super sticky down, this is normal. Smear 1 tablespoon of oil on the dough and place in a plastic bag for a 30 to 45 minutes rest.

  2. After this time the dough should be manageable. Shape into an cylinder and cut into 8 equal pieces. Make a ball by pushing the outside in until there is not more outside oily surface.

  3. Roll out each piece of dough into a rectangle and spread 1 Tbsp of oil on the surface with a spoon. Fold into thrids, turn 90 degrees and fold again into thrirds. It will look like alittle package.

  4. Roll out each piece into a thin rectangle.

  5. Place one at a time on a preheated skillet set on medium heat. Wait until bubbles start to form, about 1 minute, then flip and leave for another minute. Pour 1 Tbsp of oil underneath it in the pan. Flip it over about 4-5 times until it is browned and coated on both sides, about 4 to 5 minutes in total.

Sephardic Challah – Northern Mediterranean

Makes 2 round loaves


  • 3 tablespoons sesame seeds

  • 1 1/2 tablespoons caraway seeds

  • 1 1/2 tablespoons anise seeds

  • 1 envelope active dry yeast

  • 2 cups lukewarm water

  • 5 cups bread flour

  • 2 1/2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil

  • 2 tablespoons honey

  • 1 tablespoon kosher salt

  • Cornmeal for dusting

  • 2 large egg yolks


How to Make It


Step 1    

  • In a skillet, toast the sesame, caraway and anise seeds over moderate heat until fragrant, 2 minutes; transfer to a plate and let cool. In a small bowl, combine the yeast with 2 tablespoons of the water and let stand until thoroughly moistened, about 5 minutes.


Step 2    

  • In the bowl of a standing electric mixer fitted with the dough hook, combine the flour with the olive oil, the honey and the remaining water and mix at low speed until a very soft dough forms. Add the kosher salt, yeast mixture and all but 1 tablespoon of the seeds and mix at medium-low speed until the dough is supple and smooth, 10 minutes. Using oiled hands, transfer the dough to a large oiled bowl. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and let stand in a draft-free spot until the dough is risen, 1 hour.


Step 3    

  • Lightly oil 2 small cookie sheets and dust them with cornmeal. Turn the dough out onto a lightly floured work surface and press to deflate. Cut the dough in half and let rest for 5 minutes. Roll each piece into an 18-inch-long rope and let rest for 5 minutes longer, then roll each rope into a 32-inch rope. Beginning at the center and working outwards, form each rope into a coil; tuck the ends under the coils.


Step 4    

  • Transfer each coil to a baking sheet and cover each loaf with a large, inverted bowl. Let stand for 1 hour, until the loaves have nearly doubled in bulk.


Step 5    

  • Preheat the oven to 400°. In a bowl, whisk the egg yolks with 1 tablespoon of water. Brush the egg wash over the loaves and let stand uncovered for 30 minutes. Brush with the egg wash once more and sprinkle with the reserved 1 tablespoon of seeds. Bake the loaves side-by-side in the center of the oven for 30 minutes, until they're golden and sound hollow when tapped on the bottom. Transfer the loaves to racks and let cool completely before slicing.

Tandir Bread – Azerbaijan

Makes 1 medium loaf


1 package (1/4 oz / 7 g) dry yeast
1 ½ cups (12 fl oz/375 ml) warm water
1 teaspoon salt
3 cups all-purpose flour, plus extra for kneading
1 egg yolk or 1 tablespoon plain yogurt mixed with just a little water, for brushing
Pinch of Nigella sativa seeds (best choice), or  poppy seeds or sesame seeds (black or white)


How to Make It

In a small bowl, mix yeast with water until the yeast is dissolved.


Sift flour into a large bowl. Add salt and toss to combine. Gradually add the yeast-water mixture and stir with your hand until a rough ball forms.


Scrape the dough onto a lightly floured surface. Press any loose dough pieces into the ball and knead the dough, punching it down with your fists, folding it over and turning. Knead for about 8-10 minutes, or until smooth and elastic.


Shape the dough into a ball and put it back into the large bowl. Cover the bowl with a kitchen towel or a plastic wrap.


Leave the dough to rise in a warm spot for about 1 ½ hours, or until doubled in bulk. The dough should look puffy and be soft when poked with a finger.


Punch down the dough, then transfer it onto a lightly floured surface.


Shape the dough into a ball, and with your hands flatten slightly and stretch it lengthwise. If you have trouble stretching the dough with your hands (although this is the recommended method), you can use a rolling pin to do the job—start rolling out the dough beginning at one end until you obtain a long flat bread about ½ inch thick (1.27cm), 14 inches long (35cm) and 8 inches (20cm) wide.


Carefully transfer the bread onto a non-stick baking sheet, fixing the shape as necessary. Leave the dough to rest and slightly rise on the baking sheet for another 15-20 minutes before baking.


Preheat the oven to 400ºF (200ºC).

Using a knife, make shallow crosshatching slashes on the bread, 4 from right to left and 4 the opposite way, each at a slight angle. Or, using your pinkie, mark 3 shallow indentations along the length of the bread. Brush the bread evenly with the glaze of your choice and sprinkle with seeds.


Place the baking sheet on the middle rack of the oven and bake the bread for 20-25 minutes, or until it is golden on top and sounds hollow when tapped on the bottom. Your tandoori bread (tandir bread) is ready!

Zopf Bread - Switzerland

Ingredients for 2 loaves of bread, about 800 gr (1.76 pounds) each

  • 1 kg (2.2 pounds) white flour

  • 1 tablespoon salt

  • 20 to 30 gr (0.7 to 1 ounce) yeast, broken in small pieces

  • 1 teaspoon sugar

  • 125 gr (4.4 ounces) butter or margarine, soft

  • 6.5 to 7dl (0.7 to 0.75 quarts) milk

  • 1 yellow of an egg, diluted


How to Make It

  1. Mix flour and salt in a bowl, add yeast, sugar, butter and milk, knead to a soft dough. Needs about 10 minutes by hand, 4 to 5 minutes when using a machine. Cover and let grow for about one hour until size has doubled.

  2. Cut dough in two or four pieces of the same size. Weave as shown below.

  3. Put bread on a sheet metal, covered with backing paper, sweep with water. Let grow again for about 30 to 60 minutes.

  4. Before baking, sweep with the yellow of an egg.

  5. Bake for about 45 to 55 minutes in the lower part of the pre-heated oven at about 200 degree Celsius (400 degree Fahrenheit).

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